In detail, both the atomic-layer deposition (ALD) process and post-annealing process have been carefully modulated during the growth of ultra-thin HZO. Thanks to the low interface defect density and appropriate engineering of capacitance matching, as-fabricated FinFETs show greatly improved SS values i.e. 34.5 mV/dec with 500 nm gate length (LG) and 53 mV/dec with 20 nm LG, and small hysteresis voltages i.e. ~9 mV with 500 nm LG and ~40 mV with 20 nm LG. The SS is much smaller than Boltzmann ...detail...